Under Medicare, the components for many procedures are “bundled” together under one code. The bundle includes important components of the procedure, such as: staff time, disposable plastics, electricity for the building and—under the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System (HOPPS)—contrast media.

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes all of the components that go into a procedure. You may find them in the “PFS Final Rule Direct PE Inputs” file at www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/PhysicianFeeSched/PFS-Federal-Regulation-Notices-Items/CMS-1715-F